Timeline

Beginning of construction of Pisa Cathedral (1064)

Beginning of construction of Pisa Cathedral (1064)

Beginning of construction of Pisa Baptistery (1152)

Beginning of construction of Pisa Baptistery (1152)

First mention of a building project for the cemetery (1260)

First mention of the project to build a cemetery for the Cathedral in the oath of office of Guido Spadaio, the new head of the Opera del Duomo. The promise to build a new cemetery is repeated by Guido’s successors Rinaldo Speziale (1260-70), Ranieri Vallecchia (1270-71) and Orlando Sardella (1271-82).

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Breviarium Pisanae Historiae (c. 1269)

<em>Breviarium Pisanae Historiae</em> (c. 1269)

by anonymous chronicler

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Foundation of the Camposanto (1277)

On 18 June 1277, Archbishop Federico Visconti (1254-77) donates a piece of land between the city walls of Pisa and the street that runs from the Lion’s Gate to the northern flank of the Cathedral. It is here that the Opera del Duomo will build the new cemetery of the Cathedral. The date of 1277…

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Church of the Holy Trinity (1298/1303)

In the first years of Burgundio di Tado’s tenure as head of the Opera del Duomo (ca. 1298-1319), the ecclesia campi sancti, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is brought to completion; it is a one-nave hall, furnished with an altar, and decorated with statues and paintings. The new sanctuary, located at the southeast corner of…

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Revised Camposanto project (c. 1320)

Under the guidance of Giovanni Rossi, head of the Opera between 1319 and 1332, a revised project for the Camposanto is developed: four large galleries arranged in a cloister-like scheme. To make space for this building, the Church of the Trinity is largely dismantled. The eastern and the western gallery of the Camposanto are completed…

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Start of the fresco decoration: Buonamico Buffalmacco and Francesco Traini (c. 1336)

In spring 1336, the Florentine painter Buonamico Buffalmacco resides at the Cappella of Santa Maria Maggiore, a place that the Opera uses as accommodation for the artists they have hired. By around 1342, Buffalmacco has painted the Triumph of Death, the Last Judgment and the Thebaid on the eastern part of the south gallery, and…

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Chronaca di Pisa (c. 1340)

Chronaca di Pisa (c. 1340)

by anonymous chronicler 

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Taddeo Gaddi’s Job cycle (1341/43)

The Florentine artist Taddeo Gaddi paints the cycle of the Life of Job at the western end of the south gallery. As in subsequent fresco decoration, Gaddi’s paintings are arranged in two horizontal registers separated by painted frames.

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Chronicon Pisanum (c. 1342)

by anonymous chronicler

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Chronaca Pisana (c. 1354)

by anonymous chronicler

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Andrea da Firenze’s and Antonio Veneziano’s Ranieri cycle (1376-1384)

In 1376, Pietro Gambacorta, signore of Pisa (1370-92), commissions a cycle dedicated to the life of San Ranieri, Pisa’s most important local saint. The paintings are located on the right of the main entrance. Left unfinished at the death of Andrea da Firenze, the painter chosen by Gambacorta in 1379, the second part of the…

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Piero di Puccio’s Christian Macrocosm and Genesis cycle (1389)

In 1389, Pietro di Puccio, an artist from Orvieto, receives the commission by Parasone Grasso, head of the Opera del Duomo (1384-90), to paint the first murals in the north gallery. Over the next two years Puccio works on a depiction of the Christian macrocosm and three pictures of a Genesis cycle. He leaves this…

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Spinello Aretino’s Ephesus and Potitus cycle (1390/91)

In 1390, Parasone Grasso, head of the Opera del Duomo (1384-90), engages the Florentine artist Spinello Aretino for six wall paintings dedicated to the Sardinian martyrs Ephesus and Potitus, whose relics were transferred to Pisa in the late eleventh century. Spinello’s frescoes close the gap between the Ranieri and the Job cycles in the south…

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Cronica di Pisa (c. 1406)

by anonymous chronicler

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Historia di Pisa di Ranieri Sardo Cittadino Pisano (c. 1430)

<em>Historia di Pisa di Ranieri Sardo Cittadino Pisano</em> (c. 1430)

by anonymous chronicler 

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Storia di Pisa d’incerto, dal suo principio fino all’anno 1422 (c. 1430)

Dimostrazione dell’andata o viaggio al Santo Sepolcro (1442-1455)

by Marco di Bartolomeo Rustici (1392-1457)

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Insertion of filigree tracery into the arched openings of the galleries (1451-1463)

Between 1451 and 1463, the wide openings of the Camposanto’s galleries are transformed into quadrifora windows, by inserting filigree tracery in marble.

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Commentari (1452-1455)

by Lorenzo Ghiberti 

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Andanças é viajes (c. 1453/54)

<em>Andanças é viajes</em> (c. 1453/54)

by Pero Tafur

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Insertion of eleven stained glass windows in the south and east galleries (1456-1489)

Starting in 1456, the Pisan workshop of Leonardo and Bartolommeo della Scarperia executes a series of stained glass windows to be installed in the eastern part of the southern gallery (in front of Buffalmacco’s frescoes) and in the subsequent opening of the eastern gallery. Most of these windows contain figural representations dedicated to the life…

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Benozzo Gozzoli’s Old Testament cycle (1468-1485)

In 1468, Antonio di Iacopo dalle Mura, head of the Opera (1460-88), commissions a large Old Testament cycle from the Florentine artist Benozzo Gozzoli. Beginning beneath the Genesis scenes painted by Piero di Puccio in 1489-91 and extending over the entire wall of the northern gallery, the cycle is by far the largest decoration project…

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Anselmi Adournes Itinerarium Terrae Sanctae (1471 und 1510)

by Jan Adorno (1444-1510)

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Chapel project for Filippo de’ Medici (1475)

Following the last will of Archbishop Filippo de’ Medici (1461-74), the building of a chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross (Cappella della Croce) is started in 1475. The sanctuary is located in the center of the east gallery, on the site of the current Cappella del Pozzo. Due to the difficult political situation in the…

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Supplementum Chronicarum (1483)

<em>Supplementum Chronicarum</em> (1483)

by Giacomo Filippo Foresti (1434-1520)

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Evagatorium in Terrae Sanctae, Arabiae et Egypti Peregrinationem (c. 1484-88)

<em>Evagatorium in Terrae Sanctae, Arabiae et Egypti Peregrinationem</em> (c. 1484-88)

by Felix Fabri (1438/39-1502)

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Le mirabile et inaldite belleze e adornamenti del Campo Sancto di Pisa (c. 1487-1499)

<em>Le mirabile et inaldite belleze e adornamenti del Campo Sancto di Pisa</em> (c. 1487-1499)

by Michelagnolo di Cristofano da Volterra

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Commentariorum urbanorum (1506)

Commentariorum urbanorum (1506)

by Raffaele Maffei (1451-1522)

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El Viaje a Jerusalén (c. 1518-1520)

<em>El Viaje a Jerusalén</em> (c. 1518-1520)

by Fadrique Enríquez de Ribera (1476-1539)

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Il libro di Antonio Billi (c. 1520-1530)

Il libro di Antonio Billi (c. 1520-1530)

by anonymous writer

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Anonimo Magliabechiano (c. 1540/1550)

Anonimo Magliabechiano (c. 1540/1550)

attributed to Bernardo Veccietti (1514-1590)

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Le vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani (1550)

<em>Le vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani</em> (1550)

by Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)

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Descrittione di tutta Italia (1550)

<em>Descrittione di tutta Italia</em> (1550)

by Leandro Alberti (1479-1552)

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Le vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architettori (1568)

<em>Le vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architettori</em> (1568)

by Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)

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Voyage en Italie (1580/81)

<em>Voyage en Italie</em> (1580/81)

by Michel de Montaigne

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Il Riposo (1584)

<em>Il Riposo</em> (1584)

by Raffaelo Borghini (1537-1588)

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Delle Istorie pisane (1592-1606)

<em>Delle Istorie pisane</em> (1592-1606)

by Raffaello Roncioni (1553-1618)

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Dialogo sul Camposanto (1593)

by Giovan Battista Totti

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Building of the Cappella dal Pozzo (1594)

Left unfinished in the fifteenth century, the sanctuary assumed its final shape under Archbishop Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo (1582-1607). Projecting far beyond the roof of the galleries, the chapel with its high dome created a new focal point at the eastern end of the cemetery’s longitudinal axis.

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A Survey of the Great Dukes State of Tuscany (1605)

<em>A Survey of the Great Dukes State of Tuscany</em> (1605)

by Robert Dallington (1561-1637)

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An Itinerary (1617)

<em>An Itinerary</em> (1617)

by Fynes Moryson (1566-1630)

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Newes Itinerarium Italiae (1627)

<em>Newes Itinerarium Italiae</em> (1627)

by Joseph Furttenbach (1591-1667)

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Diary (1644)

<em>Diary</em> (1644)

by John Evelyn (1620-1706)

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Notizie de’ Professori del Disegno da Cimabue in qua (1681-1686)

<em>Notizie de’ Professori del Disegno da Cimabue in qua</em> (1681-1686)

by Filippo Baldinucci

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Memorie Istoriche della Citta di Pisa (1682)

<em>Memorie Istoriche della Citta di Pisa</em> (1682)

by Paolo Tronci (1585-1648)

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Nouveau voyage d’Italie (1691)

<em>Nouveau voyage d’Italie</em> (1691)

by Francois-Maximilien Misson (d. 1722)

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Theatrum Basilicae pisanae (1705)

<em>Theatrum Basilicae pisanae</em> (1705)

by Giuseppe Martini

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Les Délices de l’Italie (1707)

by Henry de Rogissart

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Voyage en Italie de trois gentilshommes flamands (1724)

by Luc-Joseph van der Vynckt (1691-1779)

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Voyage en Italie (c. 1730)

<em>Voyage en Italie</em> (c. 1730)

by Charles-Louis de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

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Voyages du Père Labat (1730)

<em>Voyages du Père Labat</em> (1730)

by Jean-Baptiste Labat (1663-1738)

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Some Observations Made in Travelling through France, Italy & in the Years 1720, 1721, and 1722 (1730)

<em>Some Observations Made in Travelling through France, Italy & in the Years 1720, 1721, and 1722</em> (1730)

by Edward Wright

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Lettres historiques et critiques sur l’Italie (1739/1740)

<em>Lettres historiques et critiques sur l’Italie</em> (1739/1740)

by Charles de Brosses (1709-1777)

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Keysslers Neueste Reisen (1740)

<em>Keysslers Neueste Reisen</em> (1740)

by Johann Georg Keyssler

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The Grand Tour (1749)

<em>The Grand Tour</em> (1749)

by Thomas Nugent (1700?-1772)

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Guida per il passeggiere dilettante di pittura, scultura, architettura nella Città di Pisa (1751)

<em>Guida per il passeggiere dilettante di pittura, scultura, architettura nella Città di Pisa</em> (1751)

by Pandolfo Titi (1696-1765)

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Letters from Italy (1754/1773)

<em>Letters from Italy</em> (1754/1773)

by John Boyle

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Voyage d’Italie (1758)

<em>Voyage d’Italie</em> (1758)

by Charles-Nicolas Cochin (1715-1790)

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Nouveaux mémoires ou observations sur l’Italie et sur l’Italiens (1758/1764)

<em>Nouveaux mémoires ou observations sur l’Italie et sur l’Italiens</em> (1758/1764)

by Pierre-Jean Grosley (1718-1783)

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Description historique et critique de l’Italie (1761/1766)

<em>Description historique et critique de l’Italie</em> (1761/1766)

by Jérôme Richard (d. ca. 1790)

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Journey from Geneva to Rome (1764)

<em>Journey from Geneva to Rome</em> (1764)

by Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)

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Travels through France and Italy (1765/1766)

<em>Travels through France and Italy</em> (1765/1766)

by Tobias Smollett (1721-1771)

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Voyage d’un Francais en Italie (1765/1769)

<em>Voyage d’un Francais en Italie</em> (1765/1769)

by Joseph-Jerôme de Lalande (1732-1807)

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Ecclesiae pisanae historia (1768)

<em>Ecclesiae pisanae historia</em> (1768)

by Antonio Felice Mattei (1726-1794)

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Il forestiero erudito (1773)

<em>Il forestiero erudito</em> (1773)

by Gioacchino Cambiagi (1747-1822)

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Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents: In a Series of Letters, from Various Parts of Europe (1783)

<em>Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents: In a Series of Letters, from Various Parts of Europe</em> (1783)

by William Beckford (1759-1844)

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Pisa illustrata nelle arti del disegno (1787)

<em>Pisa illustrata nelle arti del disegno</em> (1787)

by Alessandro da Morrona (1741-1821)

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Lettres sur l’Italie en 1785 (1788)

<em>Lettres sur l’Italie en 1785</em> (1788)

by Charles-Marguerite-Jean-Baptiste Mercier Dupaty (1746-1788)

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Descrizione della città di Pisa (1792)

<em>Descrizione della città di Pisa</em> (1792)

by Ranieri Prosperi 

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Burning of the Camposanto roof (1944)

On 27 July 1944, during intense combat between German troops and Allied forces, an artillery shell hits the roof of the cemetery and sets its wooden framework alight. The heat of the flames and the molten lead running down the walls destroy large sections of the wall paintings. A few weeks after the fire, the…

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Strappo and restoration of the Camposanto murals (1947-1955)

After the end of the war, all of the murals in the cemetery are detached from the walls and transferred onto a new support made of a cement mixture called Eternit. The procedure is repeated for the preparatory drawings (sinopie). From 1960 onwards, the restored Buffalmacco paintings from the south gallery are exhibited in a…

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Second strappo and restoration of the Camposanto murals (1997-2018)

Due to damage caused by the Eternit panels, a second restoration campaign using the strappo method is undertaken. The murals are transferred to a new carrier and subsequently restored. In a final step, the panels with the frescoes are returned to the walls of the Camposanto.

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